Maximum length: 236 cm; common length: 145 cm; maximum published weight: 115.0 kg; maximum reported age: 46 years. Short face, less than 60% of the length of the head. Rounded snout. Lower lip not continuous, interrupted at center. Simple barbel, closer to the nose than to the mouth. Color of back olivaceous grey, flanks lighter, and belly white. Five rows of scutes: dorsal 7-19, lateral 24-44 on each side, ventral 6-13 on each side, with lines of smaller stellate bony plates between the dorsal and ventral rows. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27-48; Anal soft rays: 16 - 35.
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii live in coastal areas and they prefer sandy beds and mudflats. Found in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea, entering all main rivers that empty into them (Don, Kuban, Danube, Dnieper (rare), Dniester). They feed on small fish, mollusks and crustaceans and reproduce in rivers from May until June.